Pre-Employment Drug Testing
- Testing that is part of the application process before an
offer of employment is made.
- Testing that is part of the hiring process after an offer
of employment is made, but before hiring actually occurs (a
"conditional offer of employment").
- Testing that occurs sometime soon after the individual begins
work, but passing the drug test is made a condition of continued
employment (i.e., even though the individual is already working,
his or her hiring will not become final unless the individual
passes the required drug test).
Random Drug Testing
The testing of employees who are chosen on a "neutral-selection"
basis without advance notice and without cause. Random drug testing
also includes the testing of all employees in a company (or a
particular division of the company) when the date and time of
the testing are unannounced and randomly selected.
For-Cause Drug Testing (Reasonable Suspicion)
This is synonymous with "probable cause" and "reasonable
suspicion" testing. Typically, the "cause" required
is an objective, factual, individualized basis for testing, such
as when an employee's behavior or physical appearance suggests
drug use or possession of drugs, or there are other indications
of a violation of the company's substance-abuse prevention policy.
This testing occurs when employees are given advance notice
of the date and time that drug testing will take place. It is
often conducted as part of a regularly scheduled employment physical
or fitness-for-duty medical examination.
Drug testing of an employee who is involved in an on-the-job
accident (vehicle or otherwise) which may have involved human
error, and which causes a fatality, a serious injury, or significant
This testing occurs during an employee's participation in a
drug rehabilitation program and/or upon the employee's return
Testing of employees whose job responsibilities are safety-sensitive.