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Pre-Employment Drug Testing

  1. Testing that is part of the application process before an offer of employment is made.
  2. Testing that is part of the hiring process after an offer of employment is made, but before hiring actually occurs (a "conditional offer of employment").
  3. Testing that occurs sometime soon after the individual begins work, but passing the drug test is made a condition of continued employment (i.e., even though the individual is already working, his or her hiring will not become final unless the individual passes the required drug test).

Random Drug Testing

The testing of employees who are chosen on a "neutral-selection" basis without advance notice and without cause. Random drug testing also includes the testing of all employees in a company (or a particular division of the company) when the date and time of the testing are unannounced and randomly selected.

For-Cause Drug Testing (Reasonable Suspicion)

This is synonymous with "probable cause" and "reasonable suspicion" testing. Typically, the "cause" required is an objective, factual, individualized basis for testing, such as when an employee's behavior or physical appearance suggests drug use or possession of drugs, or there are other indications of a violation of the company's substance-abuse prevention policy.

Periodically Announced

This testing occurs when employees are given advance notice of the date and time that drug testing will take place. It is often conducted as part of a regularly scheduled employment physical or fitness-for-duty medical examination.


Drug testing of an employee who is involved in an on-the-job accident (vehicle or otherwise) which may have involved human error, and which causes a fatality, a serious injury, or significant property damage.

Rehabilitation Monitoring

This testing occurs during an employee's participation in a drug rehabilitation program and/or upon the employee's return to work.

Safety-Sensitive Responsibilities

Testing of employees whose job responsibilities are safety-sensitive.


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